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The Qur’an here only mentions that the Prophet was taken from the Ka’bah to the mosque in Jerusalem, and specifies that the purpose of the journey was such that God might “show him some of His signs”. Beyond this, The Qur’an does not concern itself with any detail.
The Prophet Muhammad lived in and around the area that is now Saudi Arabia in the years 570 CE to 632 CE in the Gregorian calendar. According to Islamic belief, God (Allah) took him on a two-part journey sometime around the year 620 CE. The first part of the journey, known as Isra’, was from Makkah to the “farthest” mosque.